Nurshinta Anggia Anggraeni


The development of Japan's industrial sector triggered the generation of toxic and hazardous waste as its consequences which endangered the environment and human’s health. The high cost of waste management and limited land disposal encourages transboundary movement to developing countries. Although it has been monitored by the Basel Convention which ban toxic waste movement, Japan still find the loophole by using Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) as an instrument to transfer domestic waste abroad. This study will use the theory of economic diplomacy and issue linkage concept to observe Japan's diplomacy in reaching an agreement on reducing toxic and hazardous waste tariff with Indonesia in IJEPA. The result shows that Japan bartered the issue by offering capacity building compensation.  Those are consisting of investment on toxic and hazardous waste management facilities and the development of hazardous waste recycling market in Indonesia. Through the compensation, reduction tariff of hazardous waste could be achieved by Japan to continue its transboundary movement and reduce the impact of domestic environmental pollution, while still accommodating the interests of Indonesia in terms of capacity building towards hazardous waste management.

Kata Kunci

transboundary movement; hazardous waste; IJEPA; Japan; reduction tariff; economic diplomacy; issue linkage

Teks Lengkap:



________. Toxic Waste Export Harder to Control Despite Basel Convention, http://www.ban.org/ban_news/2008/080701_harder_to_control.html, diakses pada 17 Maret 2016.

_________. Japan Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement:Joint Study Group, dari http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/indonesia/summit0506/joint3-2.pdf. Diakses pada 25 Agustus 2016.

Balboa, Jenny. (2004). Negotiated Trade Liberalization in East Asia: Examining Japan‟s Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). Dari https://www.jcer.or.jp/eng/pdf/Balboa.pdf. Diakses pada 18 Maret 2017.

Basel Action Network, JPEPA as a Step in Japan‟s Greater Plan to Liberalize Hazardous Waste in Asia, http://www.ne.jp/asahi/kagaku/pico/basel/CSF_JPEPA/Japan%27s_policy_be hind_JPEPA.pdf, diakses pada 25 Agustus 2015.

Clapp, Jennifer. (2004). Seeping Through the Regulatory Cracks: The International Transfer of Toxic Waste. Working Paper TIPEC: New York.

Druckman, Daniel. (2001). Turning Point in International Negotiation:A Comparative Analysis, Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol.45 ,No.4. http://www.jstor.org.stable/3176310, diakses pada 1 September 2016.

Gutierrez, Richard. (2010). „New Age‟ Trade Agreement and Their Possible Contribution to Toxic Trade . Environmental Law Network International ,Vol 2.

Haas, E.B. (1980). 'Why Collaborate? Issue Linkage and International Regimes', World Politics, vol. 32. No. 3.

Hilman, Masnellyarti. (2002). Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste in Indonesia. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia: Jakarta.

Ishida, Michiyo. Waste Disposal, an Expensive Exercise in Japan. Dari http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/videos/nwaste-8794608. Diakses pada 15 April 2017.

Mugasejati, N.P. & A.H. Rais, MPP, (2011). IIS Monograph Series - Politik Kerjasama Internasional : Sebuah Pengantar, Institute of International Studies UGM, Yogyakarta.

Okano Heijjman, Maike. (2013). Economic Diplomacy: Japan and The Balances of National Interest. Leiden: Nijhoff.

Prasetiawan, Teddy. (2012). Kebijakan Pelarangan Impor Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3) dan Permasalahannya. Jurnal Widyariset, Vol 2. No. 15.

Rana, S. K. “Economic Diplomacy: the Experience of Developing States,” dalam The New Economic Diplomacy: Decision-Making and Negotiation in International Economic Relations, ed. Nicholas Bayne dan Stephen Woolcock. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing, 2007.

Trixaningtyas, Gayatri.(2008). Analisa Kepentingan Ekonomi-Politik Indonesia dan Jepang dalam Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Skripsi Sarjana, Universitas Indonesia: Depok.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22303/pir.3.2.2019.156-172


  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.



Kantor Redaksi Jurnal Power in International Relations (PIR) . Gedung LPPM Lt2, Kampus Universitas Potensi Utama. Jl. K.L. Yos Sudarso Km 6,5 No.3-A Telp. (061) 6640525 Ext. 214 Tanjung Mulia Medan 20241


Qries Qries Qries Qries


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
Flag Counter
data macauslot deposit pulsa 5000web slot gacor 2023slot gacor maxwinslot gacorjoker768https://jkn.unitri.ac.id/classes/demo/demoslot gacor hari inislot bonus new memberslot demo