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STRATEGI ETIOPIA DALAM MENGURANGI KETERGANTUNGAN TERHADAP BANTUAN LUAR NEGERI

Devita Prinanda

Sari


Negara di Afrika memiliki sejarah ketidakstabilan politik yang berdampak pada pertumbuhan ekonomi yang tidak maksimal. Karena ketidakstabilan tersebut maka banyak negara Afrika yang menerima bantuan luar negeri untuk merestrukturisasi ekonomi nasionalnya. Dampak dari bantuan yang diterima adalah pertumbuhan ekonomi dan perbaikan performansi nasional. Namun, disisi lain ternyata bantuan luar negeri membuat negara-negara di Afrika ketergantungan dengan bantuan tersebut. Etiopia adalah salah satu negara dengan penerima donor terbesar. Etiopia bergantung pada bantuan luar negeri hingga mencapai 50% untuk anggaran nasional di tahun 2012. Namun, di tahun 2017 Etiopia mampu mengurangi ketergantungannya akan bantuan asing meskipun tetap sebagai negara penerima bantuan terbesar di Afrika. Penelitian ini membahas strategi Etiopia untuk melepaskan diri dari ketergantungan bantuan asing. Penulis menganalisa dengan menggunakan konsep strategi dalam mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap bantuan yang diinisasikan oleh Bräutigam dan Kwesi Botchwey. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Etiopia mengalami pertumbuhan ekonomi yang cukup kuat. Permasalahan pangan dan isu penting lainnya mampu teratasi secara perlahan. Namun, peran besar dalam membantu Etiopia menjadi mandiri ada pada pendonor dan pihak eksternal. Keterlibatan donor dalam mengevaluasi bantuan membuat bantuan menjadi lebih efektif. Kolaborasi pendonor dalam melakukan bantuan baik dengan aktor pemerintah maupun non pemerintah juga menjadi kunci efektifitas implementasi proyek bantuan asing di Etiopia.


Kata Kunci


etiopia: foreign aid: aid dependence: strategi

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi


Referensi

Buku:

Lindsay Whitfield & Emily Jones. (2009). Ghana: Breaking Out of Aid Dependence? Economic and Political Barriers to Ownership. In L. Whitfield, The Politics of Aid African Strategies for Dealing with Donors (pp. 185-216). New York: Oxford University Press.

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Jurnal:

Bräutigam, D. (2000). Aid Dependence and Governance. California: Almqvist & Wiksell International.

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Laporan:

Ann Veiderpass & Per-Åke Andersson. (2007). Foreign Aid, Economic Growth and Efficiency Development . Karlstad: Swedish Agency for Development Evaluation.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22303/pir.5.2.2021.111-128

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